PALEONTOLOGY

Kuban last revised Jan. I use this format to avoid webbot spamming Fig. Brown’s website and book showing what he calls the “Rupture Phase of the Flood” Introduction Walter Brown, a young-earth creationist and retired mechanical engineer, has developed a “Flood model”1 which he believes accounts for virtually all geologic evidence on earth, as well as a variety of astronomical phenomena. His central thesis is that only a few thousand years ago the Earth’s entire crust consisted of a granite slab 20 to 60 miles thick until recently, claimed to be 10 mi thick , suspended over a large reservoir of highly pressurized water. According to Brown, due to centuries of “tidal pumping” from the Moon’s gravity, the crust suddenly cracked and burst open, violently releasing the subterranean water and flooding the entire earth Fig. He argues that large masses of rock and water were ejected into outer space during this massive eruption, creating all the asteroids, comets, and meteoroids in our solar system.

Why Does Ancient Art Contain Depictions Of Flying Aircraft, Helicopters And Dinosaurs?

One of the very foundations of evolution and popular science today is the “geologic column. Although not found in all locations and although it varies in thickness as well as the numbers of layers present, this column can be found generally over the entire globe. Many of its layers can even be found on top of great mountains – such as Mt.

Everest and the American Rockies. In some places, such as the mile deep Grand Canyon, the layers of the column have been revealed in dramatic display.

USA, First postal stationery with prehistoric animals This is, very likely, the very first philatelic item related to Paleontology. 2c prepaid envelope from the USA, produced by the Torrance Lime & Fertiliser Company, from Lomita city in California, which shows some prehistoric animals and Neandertaler.

About 1 billion years ago Earliest evidence of multicellular organisms metazoans. CAMBRIAN Beginning about million years ago Beginning of the Cambrian Period and “radiation of species” – in part, because many organisms began to develop hard skeletal material as part of defensive and functional body plans. Hard body parts are shells and exoskeletons were selectively preserved and therefore easier to find as fossils in Cambrian and younger sedimentary rocks.

Early Evidence of Life on a Global Scale Banded-iron formations BIFs are sedimentary mineral deposits consisting of alternating beds of iron-rich minerals mostly hematite and silica-rich layers chert or quartz formed about 3. Theory suggests BIFs are associated with the capture of oxygen released by photosynthetic processes by iron dissolved in ancient ocean water. Once nearly all the free iron was consumed in seawater, oxygen could gradually accumulate in the atmosphere, allowing an ozone layer to form.

BIF deposits are extensive in many locations, occurring as deposits, hundreds to thousands of feet thick.

Milestones of Paleontology related Philatelic items.

Important We believe any unbiased reader will realize that we were fair with our treatment of the two models in the table above. Yet, although the theory of evolution matches the facts in some cases, evolution is still an unproven theory. By now, you may believe it should be your first choice also.

A Review of Walt Brown’s book and hydroplate theory. Earth Boiled, Steamed and Roasted Another serious problem with Brown’s model is the immense heat that would be generated during the proposed cataclysmic eruptions (Castagnoli, ; Morton, ), which would have literally boiled the oceans and steamed to death all animals and humans aboard Noah’s ark.

What about the fact that the “simple” organisms are buried in the lower levels and the more “complicated” ones are buried in the higher levels? Doesn’t this fact support the notion that simple organisms evolved into more and more complex organisms over time, with the more complex organisms buried and fossilized above the earlier and simpler life forms?

Certainly this seems like a very logical assumption. But, things just aren’t that easy. There are a number of potential problems with this interpretation of the fossil record. For example, it is interesting to note that some general kinds of fossilized creatures are very generally found in the same relative vertical orientation, with respect to each other in the fossil record, that they would have naturally been found in during life. Single celled organisms make their first appearance in the lowest layers followed by multicelled ocean bottom-dwelling creatures like sponges and worms etc.

Higher up come creatures like bony fishes, then land plants and animals, then birds and larger land animals. Of course, this is a very general pattern and does not explain why certain creatures that lived on the bottoms of oceans, like trilobites, make their first appearance in the Cambrian Ma while other creatures that live on ocean bottoms, like crabs and lobsters, don’t appear until the beginning of the Cretaceous Ma. If the geologic column truly represents a series of closely spaced catastrophic burial events instead of long ages of time, how can this feature be explained?

Certainly this seems like a difficult and rather mysterious problem for those, like myself, who might think to question the long age notion of the fossil record.

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Introduction What is a transitional fossil? The term “transitional fossil” is used at least two different ways on talk. I call these two meanings the “general lineage” and the “species-to-species transition”: This is a sequence of similar genera or families, linking an older group to a very different younger group. Each step in the sequence consists of some fossils that represent a certain genus or family, and the whole sequence often covers a span of tens of millions of years.

Learn how scientists determine the ages of rocks and fossils. We’ll explore both relative and numerical dating on our quest to understand the process of geological dating.

Early history[ edit ] In Ancient Greece , Aristotle BCE observed that fossils of seashells in rocks resembled those found on beaches — he inferred that the fossils in rocks were formed by living animals, and he reasoned that the positions of land and sea had changed over long periods of time. Leonardo da Vinci — concurred with Aristotle’s interpretation that fossils represented the remains of ancient life. Steno argued that rock layers or strata were laid down in succession, and that each represents a “slice” of time.

He also formulated the law of superposition, which states that any given stratum is probably older than those above it and younger than those below it. While Steno’s principles were simple, applying them proved challenging. Over the course of the 18th century geologists realized that:

Geologic time scale

Senior research scientist Alexander Cherkinsky specializes in the preparation of samples for Carbon testing. He directed the pretreatment and processing of the dinosaur bone samples with the Accelerator Mass Spectrometer, though he did not know the bones were from dinosaurs, and he signed the reports. Carbon dating at this facility is certainly the very best. But in , someone told the director of the facility, Jeff Speakman, that the Paleochronology group was showing the Carbon reports on a website and YouTube and drawing the obvious conclusions.

The following, inevitably incomplete, introductory glossary of terms and concepts links to other topics discussed elsewhere on this site, as well as including general topics of interest such as well-known prehistoric animals.

Paleontology is the study of fossils. A fossil is defined as any trace of a past life form. Thus, although wood, bones, and shells are the most common fossils, under certain conditions soft tissues, tracks and trails, and even coprolites fossil feces may be preserved as fossils. Although most of the fossils that paleontologists study are several thousands to several billions of years old, there is no absolute minimum age for a biological structure to be a fossil.

Paleontologists study fossils and attempt to use them to reconstruct the history of the Earth and the life on it. Some paleontologists study the ecology of the past; others work on the evolution of fossil taxa. For additional information on the subdisciplines of paleontology, read our “What is paleontology? How does paleontology differ from anthropology and archaeology?

Palaeos: Main Glossary

Kuban last revised Aug. I use this format to avoid webbot spamming Fig. Brown’s website and book showing what he calls the “Rupture Phase of the Flood” Introduction Walter Brown, a young-earth creationist and retired mechanical engineer, has developed a “Flood model”1 which he believes accounts for virtually all geologic evidence on earth, as well as a variety of astronomical phenomena.

His central thesis is that only a few thousand years ago the Earth’s entire crust consisted of a granite slab 20 to 60 miles thick until recently, claimed to be 10 mi thick , suspended over a large reservoir of highly pressurized water. According to Brown, due to centuries of “tidal pumping” from the Moon’s gravity, the crust suddenly cracked and burst open, violently releasing the subterranean water and flooding the entire earth Fig. He argues that large masses of rock and water were ejected into outer space during this massive eruption, creating all the asteroids, comets, and meteoroids in our solar system.

Geologic history of Earth: Geologic history of Earth, evolution of the continents, oceans, atmosphere, and biosphere. The layers of rock at Earth’s surface contain evidence of the evolutionary processes undergone by these components of the terrestrial environment during the times at which each layer was formed. By studying.

The Milky Way’s black hole is 26, light years away. Space We have estimated the size of our galaxy to be around , Light Years in Diameter. But the latest evidence may bring that size to almost , light-years in size. Great Attractor is a gravitational anomaly in intergalactic space at the center of the Laniakea Supercluster that reveals the existence of a localised concentration of mass tens of thousands of times more massive than the Milky Way.

Higgs Boson – Hadron Collider Galactic Coordinate System is a celestial coordinate system in spherical coordinates, with the Sun as its center, the primary direction aligned with the approximate center of the Milky Way galaxy, and the fundamental plane approximately in the galactic plane. It uses the right-handed convention, meaning that coordinates are positive toward the north and toward the east in the fundamental plane. Celestial Navigation is the ancient art and science of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.

Celestial navigation uses “sights,” or angular measurements taken between a celestial body the sun, the moon, a planet or a star and the visible horizon.

Relative Dating